Links to Treaties and present day constitutions.  Traditional forms of Indigenous government have begun although the majority of Indian Country remain to govern by IRA variety constitutions. Separation of powers via a three branch government is currently a favorable advancement from less stable single branch systems. Yet with Federal subsidization of Tribal governments self-sufficient models must be formulated to ascend to a higher form of sovereignty. This is and will continue to be an online educational resource for all people interested in changes of governing structures for all Native Nations.


Timeline Apache Relocations

San Carlos established in 1852

Jicarilla Reservation by treaty 1852

Mescalero Reservation assigned in 1855

Jicarilla Reservation abolished in 1873

Mescalero Reservation by treaty 1873

Yavapai Verde Reservation by treaty 1873

Yavapai Verde Reservations abolished in 1875 

Yavapai Apache Reservation re-established in

Mescalero Reservation established in 1883

Jicarilla Reservation re-established in 1887

White Mountain Reservation established in 1871

Ft McDowell Mohave-Apache reservation established in 1890

Yavapai Reservation renamed in 1999


"The Struggle for Sovereignty at San Carlos" published 2000 PDF
Treaties Constitutions

Native Reserve Agreements with U.S. Federal Government

Treaty with the Comanche, Lipan Nations 1846

Treaty with the Apache - 1852

Treaty with the Comanche, Kiowa, Apache Nation 1853

Treaty with the Apache, Cheyenne, Arapaho Nation 1865

Treaty with the Kiowa, Apache, Comanche Nations 1867

Treaty with the Kiowa, Comanche Nations 1867

Fort Laramie Treaty - 1868





Constitution of the Chiricahua Chokonende Draft Preamble 2003

Constitution of the Yavapai Apache Nation

Constitution of the White Mountain Apache Nation
HTML version

Constitution Of The Fort McDowell Yavapai Nation

San Carlos Constitution
HTML version

Constitution of the Jicarilla Apache Nation
HTML version

Constitution of the Mescalero Apache Nation
download PDF version

Constitution of the Traditional Kickapoo Tribe of Texas
HTML version

Draft Constitution of the San Carlos Apache Nation
Download page for PDF versions


Voice of America Radio Program: June 2, 2002: Cochise Transcripts

Indian Land Cessions in the U.S., 1784 to 1894: List of Tribes

Indigenous Peoples & US Government Chronology

The Harvard Project on Indian Economic Development

Harvard Report on San Carlos Apache 
Reservation Economic Development

download PDF version

Harvard Report on San Carlos Constitution Revisions
download PDF version

Application For Feathers at Eagle Repository Denver
download PDF application

The Chokonende Way

"Unity through trade"

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